Friday, December 31, 2010

The Mysterious Black Hole

UNTIL now, the black hole (black hole) is still considered the only astronomhk most mysterious objects because they can not be observed directly through even the most sophisticated optical telescopes. Therefore, all materials, including light, will be sucked in and could not be separated from the surface.

Black holes are believed to be born when the great mass stars (10-15 solar masses) through the end of life as a powerful exploding stars (supernovae). Black hole called the death of a star a star black holes (stellar black holes). Observations of modern astronomers with telescopes of today indicates the existence of black holes with mass maharaksasa much bigger than a star. The black hole mass estimated the mass of billions of stars and supermassive black holes called.

The existence of black holes in the universe predicted a German mathematician, Karl Schwarzshild, 1916. He uses the Theory of General Relativity that Albert Einstein coined in 1915 to calculate the gravity field solutions in the form of point masses. But Schwar-zshild not so sure it's got the solution of physical significance or can be found in nature.

Puzzle Schwarzschild solution revealed after found objects emitting powerful X-rays from deep space in the 1960s. According to the theory of stellar evolution, X-ray radiation sources that prove the existence of highly compressible objects such as neutron stars or black holes.

The term black hole the first time introduced to John A Wheeler in 1967 to describe the condition of the curvature of space-time around-mass objects with very strong gravitational field. According to the Theory of General Relativity, the presence of the mass will distort space and time.

In simple language, the presence of the mass will bend space and time around them.
Illustrations are often used to demonstrate the curvature of space around the body of mass is the elastic rubber sheet to describe the three-dimensional space into two-dimensional space. When we ping-pong ball rolling on a stretch of the rubber sheet, moving the ball straight with just giving a little pressure on the rubber sheet.

Conversely, if we put the ball billiard larger mass (massive), curved rubber sheet with depressions in the center that housed the billiard ball. The more massive the ball the greater the pressure exerted and also increasingly in the central basin is produced on a rubber sheet.

The motion of the earth and other planets in our solar system orbit the sun as a result of gravitational force, as evidenced Isaac Newton in the Principia Mathematica in 1687. Through a mathematical equation that describes the relationship between the curvature of space and mass distribution, Einstein wanted to give an idea of gravity that is different from its predecessor's.

If we now lighter ball rolling around a massive ball of rubber sheets, balls that light no longer follow the straight path as they should, but follow the curvature of the space formed around the more massive ball. Basin formed successfully "catch" other moving objects that orbit the central object is more massive. That is an entirely new description of the explanation of motion of the planets orbit around the sun in general relativity.

In other cases, when the body moves toward the central basin, it will be attracted towards the central object. It also gives an explanation of the phenomenon of meteoroids falling into the sun, earth, or other planets.

Schwarzschild radius

Using a mathematical equation for an arbitrary spherical objects as the exact solution of Einstein's field equations, Schwarzschild found a critical condition that depends only on the mass of the object. When the radius of the object (eg star) reaches a certain price, the curvature of space-time be so great that no single material can be separated from the surface of the object, including light. Critical radii are now known as the Schwarzschild radius, which amount can be calculated with the formula 2GM / r squared. G is the gravitational constant of 6673 X 10-11 m2/detik square-Newton, C the speed of light 299.792.4580 m / sec, and M mass of the body. Collapse of massive stars that have such perfect gravity, for the first time called a black hole.

To become a black hole, according to Schwarzschild equation, our solar radius of about 696 000 km must be compressed up to 2.5 km radius. However, our sun would not become a black hole in days to come. Therefore, the mass of the sun do not exceed the limit of scattering material, which is 1.44 times the mass of our sun. So our sun does not qualify to be a black hole. Most likely, at some time later, our sun becomes a white dwarf star or dwarf.

Although the equation can explain the existence of the Schwarzschild black hole, many scientists at that time, including Einstein, one eye looking at the results of Schwarzschild. They consider the Schwarzschild equation as a mere mathematical enigma, without the presence of physical meaning. However, recently proven, state of extreme Schwarzschild equation shown at the same time the proposed model of two U.S. physicists, Robert Oppenheimer and Hartland Snyder, in 1939 which set out from the calculation of Schwarzschild, successfully demonstrated in computer simulations.

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